New Zealand's Chief Science Advisor demonstrates
scientific misconduct regarding fluoride and pregnancy
Like the US, the government of New Zealand recommends that pregnant women consume 3 mg of fluoride per day. Unlike the US, however, New Zealand mentions "amniotic fluid":
Health Effects of Water Fluoridation: a Review of the Scientific Evidence. A report on behalf of the Royal Society of New Zealand and the Office of the Prime Minister's Chief Science Advisor. August 2014.
The section, "Pregnant or breastfeeding women" (page 29) begins: "The recommendations for fluoride intake for pregnant and breastfeeding women do not differ from those for non-pregnant women (3 mg/day)."
The next paragraph concludes: "The effect of maternal intake on fluoride concentration in the amniotic fluid and fetal blood does not vary between intakes of 0.25 and 1.0 mg/day... "
Reference 57 of the New Zealand Review of the Scientific Evidence
Brambilla, E., et al., Oral administration of fluoride in pregnant women, and the relation between concentration in maternal plasma and in amniotic fluid. Arch Oral Biol, 1994. 39(11): p. 991994.
Abstract: The aim was to measure the ionic fluoride concentration in maternal plasma and in amniotic fluid after oral administration of different doses of sodium fluoride (NaF) to 121 pregnant women. They were divided into six groups, according to the dose administered; 0 for the control group and 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00 or 1.25 mg of F- for the others. The subjects were instructed to take the corresponding NaF dose both 24 and 3 h before amniocentesis. Amniotic fluid (5 ml) and venous blood (5 ml) were obtained from each subject. Ionic fluoride concentration was measured with an expanded-scale potentiometer and a selective fluoride electrode.
The results showed that F- concentration in amniotic fluid and, presumably, in fetal circulation, was not significantly different in groups taking 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 or 1.00 mg/day of F-. The F- concentration in amniotic fluid of the 1.25 mg/day group was, however, significantly higher than in all the other groups.
"Half the truth is often a great lie." Ben Franklin
After telling pregnant women they need to eat 3 mg of fluoride per day, the New Zealand reviewers omit the fact that women who consumed less than half that amount (1.25 mg) had significantly higher levels of fluoride in their amniotic fluid.
As defined by the CDC, this "willful suppression and/or distortion of data" is Scientific Misconduct.
Our Most Precious Bodily Fluid
As discussed in Pregnancy and Fluoride Do Not Mix*, fluoridated amniotic fluid is a serious concern. When a fetus swallows fluoride in amniotic fluid (up to 15 ounces per day), it not only increases fluoride levels in its bloodstream, but it may disrupt colonization and composition of bacteria in the fetal GI tract adversely affecting neurological and immunological development.
*Pages 52-53: Fluoridated Amniotic Fluid
The New Zealand reviewers also distorted data when they claimed: "The effect of maternal intake on fluoride concentration in... fetal blood does not vary between intakes of 0.25 and 1.0 mg/day."
In contrast, Brambilla et. al said: "Fluoride concentration in amniotic fluid and, presumably, in fetal circulation, was not significantly different in groups taking 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 or 1.00 mg/day of fluoride."
The reviewers' themselves contradict their distorted statement earlier in the same paragraph: "Fluoride levels in cord blood reach, on average, 87% (~60-90%) of those in maternal blood."
It is also contradicted in more recent and respected sources that are cited several times by the New Zealand reviewers: the European Food Safety Authority (2013) ("The concentration of fluoride in cord blood is about 75% of the concentration in maternal blood") and the US National Research Council (2006) ("Average cord blood concentrations are approximately 60% of maternal serum concentrations.")
Even more troubling: Research shows that fluoride levels in fetal blood can be more than twice as high as cord blood and 25% higher than maternal levels (Shimonovitz et al. 1995). This can happen because fetal swallowing of fluoride in amniotic fluid is absorbed into fetal circulation, as alcohol is (Burd et al. 2012; Brien et al. 1983) as discussed in:
Pregnancy and Fluoride Do Not Mix, pages 56-57:
Fetuses Exceed Tolerable Upper Intake Level of Fluoride