Fluoride and Cancer Metastasis

John D. MacArthur

Fluoride reduces adhesion forces in bacteria.
Reduced adhesion forces are involved in cancer metastasis.
Fluoridated drinking water is positively correlated with cancer rates in the US.

In 2010, researchers at Saarland University in Germany revealed that the long-hypothesized "protective layer" fluoride supposedly forms on teeth is in fact only six nanometers thick. It would take almost 10,000 such layers to span the width of a human hair. Such a minuscule layer is quickly worn away by ordinary chewing, so is unlikely able to shield teeth from decay.

In May 2013, Saarland University's Experimental Physics Department found new evidence for how fluoride knocks out cavity-causing bacteria. Fluoride reduces the adhesion force of bacteria, so they are less able to adhere to teeth, where they produce the acid that causes cavities.

The researchers tested adhesion of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, and Staphylococcus carnosus on hydroxyapatite (main ingredient in tooth enamel) surfaces – before and after treatment with fluoride solution. All bacteria species exhibited lower adhesion forces after fluoride treatment of the surfaces. Because fluoride reduces the ability of decay-causing bacteria to stick on teeth, it is easier to wash away these bacteria by saliva, brushing, and other activity. [Loskill et al. 2013]

The researchers say, "Fluoride appears to weaken bacterial adhesion forces in general."

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"Tumor cells that exhibit low cell-cell adhesion forces would represent a highly metastatic phenotype since they detach more easily." In the majority of the human cancers it has been clearly demonstrated that alterations in the adhesion forces are implicated in the invasion and metastasis process. It is the late stage of cancer spread, a process known as metastasis, which involves the migration of neoplastic cells from one anatomical site to another, that is likely to be most affected by de-arrangement or alterations in adhesion receptor levels or function. [Golias et al. 2005]

"Malignant neoplasms (cancer)" is the #2 leading cause of death in the United States.
Rates of death in states fluoridated more than 80% average 4.9% higher
than in states less than 80% fluoridated.*

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In 2001, a major study by Takahashi et al. found:
"Cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, colon and rectum...
were positively associated with 'optimally' fluoridated drinking water

The CDC continues to ignore this study, even though its own data shows
a positive association between optimally fluoridated drinking water and cancer:

Cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx average 6.4% higher,
and cancers of the colon and rectum average 5.6% higher

in the 20 states more than 80% fluoridated (average 93%)
than in the 30 states <80% fluoridated (average 58%).*

(Breast cancer rates average 6.4% higher in the most fluoridated states.)

• Oral Cavity and Pharynx. Crude Invasive Cancer Incidence Rates and 95% Confidence Intervals by U.S. Census Region and Division, State, and Race and Ethnicity, United States. 2013. (Table

• Colon and Rectum. Crude Invasive Cancer Incidence Rates and 95% Confidence Intervals by U.S. Census Region and Division, State, and Race and Ethnicity, United States. 2013. (Table

*Fluoridation Statistics 2012

Why Pregnant Women Should Not Drink Fluoridated Water
What the CDC is not telling you

New Zealand's Chief Science Advisor demonstrates
a blatant suppression of data with regard to fetal fluoride exposure

Pregnancy and Fluoride Do Not Mix

When you Drink Fluoridated Water, So Does Your Baby

Why You Should Not Believe the Fluoridation Sales Pitch

Research Reports